The last 12,000 years show a more complex climate history than previously thought

A Mean sea surface temperature (SST) gradient (defined as g=∥∇SST∥, calculated based on a 0.25° resolution map) and median marine HTM anomalies compared to mean Holocene (dots). B Marine Holocene Thermal Maximum anomalies (bottom axis) and mean modern latitudinal SST gradient for 10° latitudinal bands (blue line, top axis). Box-whisker plots show 0% (bottom whiskers), 25, 50, 75, and 100% (top whiskers) quantiles. Semitransparent boxes are for latitudinal bands with fewer than 10 records. Credit: Nature Communications (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-33362-1

We rely on climate models to predict the future, but models cannot be fully tested as climate observations rarely extend back…

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